Sør-Trøndelag was created in 1919. It means '(the) southern (part
Until 1919 the name of the county was Søndre Trondhjems amt. The
meaning of this name was '(the) southern (part of) Trondhjems
amt'. (The old Trondhjems amt, created in 1662, was divided in
1804. Trondhjem is the old form of Trondheim.)
The broad and long
Trondheimsfjord is at the center of this county, although the
coastal areas stretch somewhat further north. The mountain
ranges Dovrefjell and Trollheimen are located in the south,
while the Fosen peninsula is located north of the fjord. Several
of the best salmon rivers in Europe are located in the county,
the largest and most famous being Gaula and Orkla.
Dovrefjell-Sunndalsfjella National Park, Forollhogna National
Park () and Skarvan og Roltdalen National Park are located,
or partly located, in the county.
People have lived in
this region for thousands of years (see Rock carvings in Central
Norway, Nøstvet and Lihult cultures and Corded Ware culture).
The fertile lowland bordering the Trondheimsfjord was probably
the most important power centre in the Viking Age. Trondheim was
the seat of the archbishop for several centuries, and an
important pilgrimage destination following the death of St Olav
Nidaros Cathedral, TrondheimRøros, in the southeastern part of
the county, is a well-preserved mining town on a mountain
plateau, and is now on Unesco's World Heritage List.